This article has all that one could want from an introduction to further study - some intellectual background, a biography, an impressive outline of his work, a good bibliography - but given that not only Bolzano's works themselves, but also most what little there is of it of contemporary Bolzano scholarship is very esoteric, it makes this a very difficult article to improve upon. Wiki either your standards are too high or the wiki philosophers need some help on this one! Zero Thrust talk
Bolzano did not, of course, expressly discuss or support any independent demarcation of pure logic in our sense, but he provided one de facto in the first two volumes of his work, in his discussions of what underlay a Wissenschaftslehre or theory of science in the sense of his conception; he did so with such purity and scientific strictness, and with such a rich store of original, scientifically confirmed and fruitful thoughts, that we must count him as one of the greatest logicians of all time.
He must be placed historically in fairly close proximity to Leibniz, with whom he shares important thoughts and fundamental conceptions, and to whom he is also philosophically akin in other respects.
I, Prolegomena to a Pure Logic 61 Appendix Bolzano was the first to A biography of bernard bolzano that transcendental philosophy and its idealistic sequel were a reductio ad absurdum of the semantics of modem philosophy. He was also the first to see that the proper prolegomena to any future metaphysics was a study not of transcendental considerations but of what we say and its laws and that consequently the prima philosophia was not metaphysics or ontology but semantics.
The development of these ideas in his monumental Wissenschaftslehre and in a variety of other writings established Bolzano as the founder of the semantic tradition.
Bolzano's philosophy was the kind that takes from and then gives life to science. His approach to semantics was developed in dialectical interplay with the decision to solve certain problems concerning the nature of mathematical knowledge.
Kant A biography of bernard bolzano not even seen these problems; Bolzano solved them. And his solutions were made possible by, and were the source of, a new approach to the content and character of a priori knowledge.
Cambridge University Press "Bernard Bolzano was a lone forerunner both of analytical philosophy and phenomenology.
Born in Prague in the year when Kant's first Critique appeared, he became one of the most acute critics both of Kant and of German Idealism. He died in Prague in the same year in which Frege was born; Frege is philosophically closer to him than any other thinker of the nineteenth or twentieth century.
Bolzano was the only outstanding proponent of utilitarianism among German-speaking philosophers, and was a creative mathematician whose name is duly remembered in the annals of this discipline. His Wissenschaftslehre Theory of Science of makes him the greatest logician in the period between Leibniz and Frege.
The book was sadly neglected by Bolzano's contemporaries, but rediscovered by Brentano pupils: Mainly in order to combat radical skepticism, he found it necessary to base his teachings in these fields on certain ontological conceptions. He was convinced that there exist truths-inthemselves Wahrheiten an sich prior to and independent of language and man.
These truths he carefully distinguished from truths expressed in words and conceived truths. Propositions consist of terms ideas-in-themselves, Vorstellungen an sich. These are likewise to be distinguished, on the one hand, from the words or word sequences by which they are denoted and, on the other, from subjective ideas that occur in our mind.
Although linguistic entities and conceived entities exist concretely, terms, propositions, and truths do not. Terms were equally carefully distinguished from their objects, whether or not these objects themselves existed concretely. Though Bolzano was a Platonist in the modern sensehis ontology was rather remote from that of Plato or, for that matter, from that of Immanuel Kant, in spite of the common an sich terminology.
Beyond these negative determinations, Bolzano had little positive to say on the ontological status of terms and propositions except that they are the matter Stoff or sense Sinn of their correlates in language and thought.
Simple, singular terms he called intuitions Anschauungen. Propositions are composed of terms and are perhaps best regarded as ordered sequences of terms, while the content Inhalt of a proposition is the unordered set of the simple terms out of which the terms constituting the proposition are composed.
The content of a complex term is similarly defined. The terms 35 and 53 are different, though they have the same content. The terms 24 and 42 are different, though they have not only the same content but even the same object. With this conception of content, the traditional doctrine of the reciprocity between the extension of a term the set of objects falling under it and the content of a term can easily be seen to be invalid.
This relationship of entailment, as presented by Bolzano, is very peculiar and obscure. Bolzano was never quite sure that he understood it himself, though he was convinced that there objectively must exist some such relationship, that each science must have its basic truths Grundwahrheiten to which all other truths of that science stand in the peculiar relation of consequence Folge to ground Grund.
Bolzano was constantly struggling to differentiate this relation of entailment from the relation of derivability Ableitbarkeitwhich was the basic relation of his logic.
Though he did not succeed in putting his theory of entailment into consistent and fruitful shape,- and could not possibly have done so, in view of the chimerical character of his goal,- his acumen, mastery of the contemporary logical and methodological literature, intellectual honesty, and lifelong self-criticism more than made up for his numerous shortcomings.
Bolzano remains a towering figure in the epistemology, logic, and methodology of the first half of the nineteenth century.
Yeoshua Bar-Hillel, Bolzano, Bernard, in:"Bernard Bolzano was a lone forerunner both of analytical philosophy and phenomenology. Born in Prague in the year when Kant's first Critique appeared, he became one of the most acute critics both of Kant and of German Idealism. Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano or Bernard Bolzano in English, (October 5, – December 18, ), was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest.
He is also known for his antimilitarist views. Bolzano is an author of German expression, which was his mother tongue.
1. Bolzano's Life and Scientific Career. Bernard Bolzano was born on 5 October in Prague. His father came from Lombardy (hence the Italian surname), though he lived already from childhood in Bohemia; by profession he was a merchant.
Bolzano, Bernard (barnweddingvt.com, Czechoslovakia, 5 October ; barnweddingvt.com, 18 December ) Philosophy, mathematics, logic, religion, ethics..
Bolzano was born in one of the oldest quarters of Prague and was baptized Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk. ImageModel for Bernhard Bolzano (Bohemian mathematician and theologian).
Filmclub Bolzano (Movie club Bolzano), is a cinema with 3 rooms and also shows several films of regional directors and actors. The Filmclub is also the venue of the Bolzano Filmfestival. The cinema is located in the old town of Bolzano.