British Defeat the French in a Struggle for North America share Print During the 18th century, powerful European nations fought each other all over the world.
There had already been a King George's War in the s during the reign of King George IIso British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, and it became known as the French and Indian War. It also led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies; some historians make a connection between the French and Indian War and the Seven Years' War overseas, but most residents of the United States consider them as two separate conflicts—only one of which involved the American colonies,  and American historians generally use the traditional name.
The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was largely concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in to the capture of Montreal in Large areas had no colonial settlements. The French population numbered about 75, and was heavily concentrated along the St. French fur traders and trappers traveled throughout the St.
Lawrence and Mississippi watersheds, did business with local Indian tribes, and often married Indian women. British settlers outnumbered the French 20 to 1  with a population of about 1.
Their population centers were along the coast, yet the settlements were growing into the interior. Nova Scotia had been captured from France inand it still had a significant French-speaking population.
Iroquois engaging in trade with colonists, In between the French and British colonists, large areas were dominated by Indian tribes.
To the north, the Mi'kmaqs and the Abenakis were engaged in Father Le Loutre's War and still held sway in parts of Nova Scotia, Acadia, and the eastern portions of the province of Canadaas well as much of Maine.
These tribes were formally under Iroquois rule and were limited by them in their authority to make agreements. The British colonists were supported in the war by the Iroquois Six Nations and also by the Cherokees, until differences sparked the Anglo-Cherokee War in Inthe Province of Pennsylvania successfully negotiated the Treaty of Easton in which a number of tribes in the Ohio Country promised neutrality in exchange for land concessions and other considerations.
Most of the other northern tribes sided with the French, their primary trading partner and supplier of arms. The Creeks and Cherokees were subject to diplomatic efforts by both the French and British to gain either their support or neutrality in the conflict.
New York and Pennsylvania theaters of the war, image from By this time, Spain claimed only the province of Florida in eastern America; it controlled Cuba and other territories in the West Indies that became military objectives in the Seven Years' War. Florida's European population was a few hundred, concentrated in St.
At the start of the war, no French regular army troops were stationed in America, and few British troops. New France was defended by about 3, troupes de la marinecompanies of colonial regulars some of whom had significant woodland combat experience.
The colonial government recruited militia support when needed. Most of the British colonies mustered local militia companies to deal with Indian threats, generally ill trained and available only for short periods, but they did not have any standing forces.
Virginia, by contrast, had a large frontier with several companies of British regulars. The colonial governments were used to operating independently of one another and of the government in London, a situation that complicated negotiations with Indian tribes, whose territories often encompassed land claimed by multiple colonies.
After the war began, the leaders of the British Army establishment tried to impose constraints and demands on the colonial administrations. They went up the St.
Lawrence, continued along the northern shore of Lake Ontariocrossed the portage at Niagara, and followed the southern shore of Lake Erie. I don't know in what way they could be brought back. Massachusetts governor William Shirley was particularly forceful, stating that British colonists would not be safe as long as the French were present.
But the territory was also claimed by Pennsylvania, and both colonies began pushing for action to improve their respective claims. These terms included permission to build a strong house at the mouth of the Monongahela River on the modern site of PittsburghPennsylvania. The War of the Austrian Succession better known as King George's War formally ended in with the signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapellewhich was primarily focused on resolving issues in Europe.
The issues of conflicting territorial claims between British and French colonies were turned over to a commission, but it reached no decision. Frontier areas were claimed by both sides, from Nova Scotia and Acadia in the north to the Ohio Country in the south. The disputes also extended into the Atlantic Oceanwhere both powers wanted access to the rich fisheries of the Grand Banks off Newfoundland.
Attack on Pickawillany Main article: His permanent replacement was to be the Marquis Duquesnebut he did not arrive in New France until to take over the post. Langlade was given men, including French-Canadians and warriors of the Ottawa tribe. On June 21, the French war party attacked the trading centre at Pickawillany, capturing three traders  and killing 14 Miami Indians, including Old Briton.
He was reportedly ritually cannibalized by some Indians in the expedition party. French fort construction This section needs additional citations for verification.Oct 26, · French and Indian War, American phase of a worldwide nine years’ war (–63) fought between France and Great Britain.
(The more-complex European phase was the Seven Years’ War [–63].) It determined control of the vast colonial territory of North America.
The French and Indian War was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France known as the Seven Years’ War.
The French and Indian War began in and ended with the Treaty of Paris in In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name.
"Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in —two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in A. Great Britain The war was fought between the colonies of Great Britain and New France, both sides was supported by forces from Europe and American Indian/5(6).
The rivalry between the two European nations, the Iroquois, and the Ohio natives for control of the region played an important part of the outbreak of the French and Indian War in the s. The Outbreak of War. The war began in May because of these competing claims between Britain and France. The French Indian war effectively ended with the surrender of Montreal in , but warfare elsewhere in the world prevented a peace treaty being signed until This was the Treaty of Paris between Britain, France, and Spain.