Reinforced concrete beam and girder bridges - Reinforced concrete tee beam - Prestressed concrete I-beams and bulb tees - Prestressed concrete box beams Steel multi-beam or multi-girder bridges - Steel rolled multi-beams Culverts and reinforced concrete boxes - Reinforced concrete box culvert - Concrete pipe culvert - Steel pipe culvert If the bridge contains only those types of spans and was constructed afterit may be eligible for the Program Comment.
See Article History Mountain ecosystem, complex of living organisms in mountainous areas. Mountain lands provide a scattered but diverse array of habitats in which a large range of plants and animals can be found.
At higher altitudes harsh environmental conditions generally prevail, and a treeless alpine vegetation, upon which the present account is focused, is supported. Lower slopes commonly are covered by montane forests.
At even lower levels mountain lands grade into other types of landform and vegetation—e. The largest and highest area of mountain lands occurs in the Himalaya -Tibet region; the longest nearly continuous mountain range is that along the west coast of the Americas from Alaska Env 100 environmental resource worksheet the north to Chile in the south.
The worldwide distribution of mountain lands is shown in Figure 1. Origin Viewed against a geologic time frame, the processes of mountain uplift and erosion occur relatively quickly, and high mountain ranges therefore are somewhat transient features.
Many mountains are isolated from other regions of similar environmental conditions, their summit regions resembling recently formed islands of cool climate settled amid large areas of different, warmer climates.
Because of this isolation, mountaintops harbour a distinct biota of youthful assemblages of plants and animals adapted to cold temperatures. At lower elevations, however, some mountains are able to provide refuges for more ancient biota displaced by environmental changes.
Also, mountainous vegetation usually has been affected less by human activities than the surrounding areas and so may harbour plants and animals that have been driven out by anthropogenic disturbances that have occurred elsewhere. During the glacial intervals of the past two million years—the Ice Ages of the Northern Hemisphere—habitats suitable to cold-adapted biota covered much larger areas than they do today, and considerable migration of cold-adapted plants and animals occurred.
Arctic biota spread south across large areas beyond the greatly expanded ice sheets that covered much of northern North AmericaEurope, and Asia.
When climatic conditions amelioratedthese organisms retreated both northward toward Arctic latitudes and uphill into areas of mountainous terrain. This history explains, for example, the close similarities between the fauna and flora of high mountains such as the European Alps and the Arctic far to their north.
In the tropicshowever, little opportunity for similar overland movement of cold-adapted biota was possible because vast forestland in the tropical lowlands formed a barrier to migration. The organisms therefore have been isolated more completely from those of other cold environments.
Despite this situation, colonization of tropical high mountains has occurred. Birds are particularly mobile, and some of temperate affinity found their way to equatorial peaks; for example, in the mountains of New Guinea are found pipits and thrushes that have no near relatives in the adjacent tropical lowlands.
Migrating birds may have been the vectors for the seeds of cold-adapted plants growing in the same places, which also lack tropical lowland relatives. Populations of mountain species are commonly both small—although fluctuating—and isolated and often have evolved over a relatively short period of time.
It is therefore not unusual to encounter related but distinct species on separate mountain peaks.
This recent and rapid production of new species contributes significantly to the biodiversity and biological importance of mountain lands. Environment Mountain environments have different climates from the surrounding lowlands, and hence the vegetation differs as well.
The differences in climate result from two principal causes: For more information see climate: World distribution of major climatic types: Altitude affects climate because atmospheric temperature drops with increasing altitude by about 0. The relief of mountains affects climate because they stand in the path of wind systems and force air to rise over them.
As the air rises it cools, leading to higher precipitation on windward mountain slopes orographic precipitation ; as it descends leeward slopes it becomes warmer and relative humidity falls, reducing the likelihood of precipitation and creating areas of drier climate rain shadows.
While these general principles apply to all mountains, particular mountain climates vary. For instance, mountains in desert regions receive little rain because the air is almost always too dry to permit precipitation under any conditions—e. Latitude also can affect mountain climates.
On mountains in equatorial regions winter and summer are nonexistent, although temperatures at high altitude are low. By contrast, mountains at temperate latitudes have strongly marked seasons.Jul 31, · It also provides a step-by-step guide, worksheets, and real-life examples to assist scientists and engineers to find, access, organize, share, and use environmental information to evaluate causes of biological effects on aquatic ecosystems, according .
This matrix contains state permitting options for emergency generators. The permitting options are determined by the state or local air quality regulations and the regulatory agency in the jurisdiction where the emergency generator is located. Module1 Data Recommendations Output Four-Action Output SWOT Output Porter Output Competition Output Cover Sheet Vision Mission Recommendations Strategy Map.
Managing Expatriates in Difficult Locations: Optimizing the Global Mobility Investment Motivating and managing talent can be challenging for any company, but the difficulties are compounded when played out in the international arena, especially in difficult locations.
Ever wondered how much “nature” your lifestyle requires? You’re about to find out. The Ecological Footprint Quiz estimates the amount of land and ocean area required to sustain your consumption patterns and absorb your wastes on an annual. At higher altitudes harsh environmental conditions generally prevail, and a treeless alpine vegetation, upon which the present account is focused, is supported. The organism and the environment: Resources of the biosphere.) Agricultural exploitation of mountain lands, therefore, is not very productive and generally is not intensive. Managing Expatriates in Difficult Locations: Optimizing the Global Mobility Investment Motivating and managing talent can be challenging for any company, but the difficulties are compounded when played out in the international arena, especially in difficult locations.
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document. Unformatted text preview: UNIVERSITY EXAMINATIONS UNIVERSITEITSEKSAMENS ‘5 U N I SA m LCP OctoberlNovember \ ENVIRONMENTAL LAW f Durahon 2 Hours Marks EXAMINERS ' FIRST.
Ms E RAUBENHEIMER SECOND: PROF M. This is a course of study in heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration trade. This course includes the study of the laws of thermodynamics, the refrigeration cycle, brazing of refrigerant lines, understanding the use of and maintenance of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment, applicable safety practices, and the proper use of refrigerants.