September 26, Death Date: February 27, Place of Birth:
Petersburg]Russian physiologist known chiefly for his development of the concept of the conditioned reflex. In a now-classic experiment, he trained a hungry dog to salivate at the sound of a bell, which was previously associated with the sight of food. He developed a similar conceptual approach, emphasizing the importance of conditioningin his pioneering studies relating human behaviour to the nervous system.
He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in for his work on digestive secretions. Life Pavlov, the first son of a priest and the grandson of a sexton, spent his youth in Ryazan in central Russia. There, he attended a church school and theological seminary, where his seminary teachers impressed him by their devotion to imparting knowledge.
In he abandoned his theological studies to enter the University of St. Petersburg, where he studied chemistry and physiology. After receiving the M.
Petersburg graduating in and completing his dissertation inhe studied during —86 in Germany under the direction of the cardiovascular physiologist Carl Ludwig in Leipzig and the gastrointestinal physiologist Rudolf Heidenhain in Breslau. From toin the laboratory of Botkin in St.
Petersburg, he investigated cardiac physiology and Ivan pavlov digestion and conditioning essay regulation of blood pressure. He became so skillful a surgeon that he was able to introduce a catheter into the femoral artery of a dog almost painlessly without anesthesia and to record the influence on blood pressure of various pharmacological and emotional stimuli.
By careful dissection of the fine cardiac nerves he was able to demonstrate the control of the strength of the heartbeat by nerves leaving the cardiac plexus; by stimulating the severed ends of the cervical nerves, he showed the effects of the right and left vagal nerves on the heart.
Pavlov married a pedagogical student ina friend of the author Fyodor Dostoyevskybut he was so impoverished that at first they had to live separately.
He attributed much of his eventual success to his wife, a domestic, religious, and literary woman, who devoted her life to his comfort and work. In he became professor of physiology in the Imperial Medical Academy, where he remained until his resignation in At the newly founded Institute of Experimental Medicine, he initiated precise surgical procedures for animals, with strict attention to their postoperative care and facilities for the maintenance of their health.
During the years — especially, and to a lesser extent until aboutPavlov studied the secretory activity of digestion. While working with Heidenhain, he had devised an operation to prepare a miniature stomachor pouch; he isolated the stomach from ingested foods, while preserving its vagal nerve supply.
The surgical procedure enabled him to study the gastrointestinal secretions in a normal animal over its life span. This work culminated in his book Lectures on the Work of the Digestive Glands in Laws of conditioned reflex By observing irregularities of secretions in normal unanesthetized animals, Pavlov was led to formulate the laws of the conditioned reflex, a subject that occupied his attention from about until He used the salivary secretion as a quantitative measure of the psychical, or subjective, activity of the animal, in order to emphasize the advantage of objective, physiological measures of mental phenomena and higher nervous activity.
Pavlov, IvanRussian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Courtesy of the National Library of Medicine According to the physiologist Sir Charles Sherringtonthe spinal reflex is composed of integrated actions of the nervous system involving such complex components as the excitation and inhibition of many nervesinduction i.
To these components, Pavlov added cortical and subcortical influences, the mosaic action of the brain, the effect of sleep on the spread of inhibition, and the origin of neurotic disturbances principally through a collision, or conflict, between cortical excitation and inhibition.
Beginning aboutPavlov tried to apply his laws to the explanation of human psychoses. He assumed that the excessive inhibition characteristic of a psychotic person was a protective mechanism—shutting out the external world—in that it excluded injurious stimuli that had previously caused extreme excitation.
In Russia this idea became the basis for treating psychiatric patients in quiet and nonstimulating external surroundings. During this period Pavlov announced the important principle of the language function in the human as based on long chains of conditioned reflexes involving words. The function of language involves not only words, he held, but an elaboration of generalizations not possible in animals lower than the human.
Although he was never a politician, he spoke fearlessly for what he considered the truth. Induring the distressing conditions in the aftermath of the Revolution, he requested permission from Vladimir Lenin to transfer his laboratory abroad.
Lenin denied this request, saying that Russia needed scientists such as Pavlov and that Pavlov should have the same food rations as an honoured communist.
|Introduction||Over a century later, Pavlov is better known for his studies in psychology and conditioning.|
|Navigate Guide||Most would think not at all, but it actually has as Ivan Pavlov accidentally discovered that he could alter the unconscious response of an animal through a process known as classical conditioning. Ivan Pavlov contributed much to psychology through his discovery of classical conditioning.|
Although it was a period of famine, Pavlov refused: During the last two years of his life, Pavlov gradually ceased these excoriations and even stated that he hoped to see the success of the government at the helm of his country. This change of heart may have been a result of increased government support of science and of his own feelings of patriotism when war with Japan seemed imminent.
He was never a communist, however, nor was he responsible for the technique of brainwashing that has sometimes been ascribed to him. In personal habits Pavlov was extremely punctual, never missing an appointment, it was claimed, and arriving on time in the laboratory even when there was revolutionary activity on the streets.
Although Pavlov held to scientific agnosticism, he considered true religion beneficial; he said that he envied no one anything except his wife her devout religious faith. He was able to formulate the idea of the conditioned reflex because of his ability to reduce a complex situation to the simple terms of an experiment.
Recognizing that in so doing he omitted the subjective component, he insisted that it was not possible to deal with mental phenomena scientifically except by reducing them to measurable physiological quantities.
Philosophically, while recognizing the preeminence of the subjective and its independence of scientific methods, he did not, in his enthusiasm for science, clarify or define this separation.Ivan Pavlov: a Russian life in science by Daniel Philip Todes (Book) Pavlov and his school; the theory of conditioned reflexes by I︠U︡.
P Frolov (Book) The primary world of senses; a vindication of sensory experience by Erwin W Straus (Book. This Essay Pavlov Therory and other 64,+ term papers, Classical conditioning was stumbled upon by accident by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov.
After he earned his medical degree in he spent many years studying the digestive system of many animals. By the year Pavlov had won the Nobel Prize for all of his research in that field.
Classical conditioning was first observed by researcher Ivan Pavlov in an experiment on digestion gone wrong. In trying to measure the salivation of dogs, he realized that many of the dogs began salivating before the food was even presented. Classical conditioning was first observed by researcher Ivan Pavlov in an experiment on digestion gone wrong.
In trying to measure the salivation of dogs, he realized that many of the dogs began salivating before the food was even presented.
Ivan Pavlov was a physiologist, but his discovery of classical conditioning heavily influenced the behaviorist movement. Learn about his life and work. Pavlov's Dogs: The Discovery of Classical Conditioning. Ivan Pavlov and His Theory on Classical Conditioning Essay - Classical conditioning is the conditional programming of an organism to respond to a conditioned stimulus that seeks to enhanced and enforce a certain behavior in an organism.