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Kant's Life and Works Immanuel Kant is often said to have been the greatest philosopher since the Greeks. Certainly, he dominates the last two hundred years in the sense that - although few philosophers today are strictly speaking Kantians - his influence is everywhere.
Moreover, that influence extends over a number of different philosophical regions: Because of Kant's huge importance, and the variety of his contributions and influences, this encyclopedia entry is divided into a number of subsections. What follows here will be a brief account of Kant's life and works, followed by an overview of those themes that Kant felt bridged his philosophical works, and made them into one 'critical philosophy'.
In financial difficulties forced him to withdraw from the University. After nine years supporting himself as a tutor to the children of several wealthy families in outlying Kant dissertation, he returned to the University, finishing his degree and entering academic life, though at first and for many years in the modest capacity of a lecturer.
He continued to work and lecture on, and publish widely, on a great variety of issues, but especially on physics and on the metaphysical issues behind physics and mathematics.
He rarely left his home city, and gradually became a celebrity Kant dissertation for his brilliant, witty but eccentric character. Kant's early work was in the tradition although not dogmatically even then of the great German rationalist philosopher Leibniz, and especially his follower Wolff.
But by the s, he was increasingly admiring Leibniz's great rival Newton, and was coming under the additional influences of the empiricist skepticism of Hume and the ethical and political thought of Rousseau.
In this period he produced a series of works attacking Leibnizian thought. In particular, he now argued that the traditional tools of philosophy - logic and metaphysics - had to be understood to be severely limited with respect to obtaining knowledge of reality.
Similar, apparently skeptical, claims were relatively common in the Enlightenment. It was only in the late s, and especially in his Inaugural Dissertation of that Kant began to move towards the ideas that would make him famous and change the face of philosophy.
In the Dissertation, he argued for three key new ideas: Second, it follows that knowledge of sensible reality is only possible if the necessary concepts such as substance are already available to the intellect.
This fact, Kant argued, also limits the legitimate range of application of these concepts. Finally, Kant claimed that sensible presentations were of only appearances', and not things as they are in themselves. This was because space and time, which describe the basic structure of all sensible appearances, are not existent in things in themselves, but are only a product of our organs of sense.
Perceiving things in space and time is a function of the mind of the perceiver. The hypothesis that both key concepts, and the basic structure of space and time, are a priori in the mind, is a basic theme of Kant's idealism see the entry on 'Kant's Metaphysics'.
It is important to recognize that this last claim about space and time also exacerbates the limitation imposed above by proposing a whole realm of 'noumena' or 'things in themselves' which necessarily lies beyond knowledge in any ordinary sense. These new and often startling ideas, with a few important modifications, would form the basis of his philosophical project for the rest of his life.
After publishing quite often in the preceding 15 years, the Dissertation ushered in an apparently quiet phase in Kant's work. Kant realized that he had discovered a new way of thinking. He now needed rigorous demonstrations of his new ideas, and had to pursue their furthest implications.
He even needed to find a new philosophical language to properly express such original thoughts! This took more than a decade of his life. Except for a remarkable set of correspondence during this period, Kant published nothing until the massive first edition of the Critique of Pure Reason, in revised second edition, Over the next two decades, however, he furiously pursued his new philosophy into different territories, producing books or shorter publications on virtually every philosophical topic under the sun.
This new philosophy came to be known as 'critical' or 'transcendental' philosophy. Of particular importance were the so called three Critiques: Kant quickly became famous in the German speaking world, and soon thereafter elsewhere. This fame did not mean universal praise, however.
Kant's work was feverishly debated in all circles - his work on religion and politics was even censored.Immanuel Kant: Aesthetics. Immanuel Kant is an 18th century German philosopher whose work initated dramatic changes in the fields of epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, and teleology.
Like many Enlightenment thinkers, he holds our mental faculty of reason in high esteem; he believes that it is our reason that invests the world we experience with structure.
modifier - modifier le code - modifier Wikidata Emmanuel Kant (Immanuel en allemand, prononcé dans cette langue [ɪ ˈ m a ː n u̯ e ː l k a n t]), né le 22 avril à Königsberg, capitale de la Prusse-Orientale, et mort dans cette même ville le 12 février , est un philosophe allemand, fondateur du criticisme et de la doctrine dite «idéalisme .
Aeon is a registered charity committed to the spread of knowledge and a cosmopolitan worldview. Our mission is to create a sanctuary online for serious thinking. Immanuel Kant () Kant's most original contribution to philosophy is his "Copernican Revolution," that, as he puts it, it is the representation that makes the object possible rather than the object that makes the representation possible [§14, A92/B, note].This introduced the human mind as an active originator of experience rather than just a passive recipient of perception.
Immanuel Kant () Kant's most original contribution to philosophy is his "Copernican Revolution," that, as he puts it, it is the representation that makes the object possible rather than the object that makes the representation possible [§14, A92/B, note].This introduced the human mind as an active originator of experience rather than .
Early Modern Texts. On this site you will find versions of some classics of early modern philosophy, and a few from the 19th century, prepared with a view to making them easier to read while leaving intact the main arguments, doctrines, and lines of thought.